Science Goals

Explore the behavior of matter and energy in its most extreme environments

Cosmic rays, high-energy charged particles traveling at velocities that can approach the speed of light, are a rich potential probe of chemical and nuclear in the Universe. The majority of cosmic rays are atomic nuclei from hydrogen to the heaviest elements with energies spanning more than twelve orders of magnitude. In the low energy end, these cosmic rays are most likely accelerated in supernova remnants. Their elemental and isotopic composition probes nucleosynthesis, nuclear interactions with the interstellar medium, the distribution of freshly synthesized elements, and the mechanism of supernova explosions. At energies above roughly 1017 eV a different source dominates. The acceleration engines responsible for such extreme energies are not well understood, but at the highest energies, above about 6 × 1019 eV, the rapid energy loss resulting from interactions with the cosmic microwave background limits sources to within about 100 Mpc. Other cosmic ray components include electrons, positrons and antiprotons. While these are largely the result of interactions of nuclear cosmic rays with the ISM, they may have other origins. Positrons and electrons can be produced directly in astrophysical objects such as pulsars and deviations in their spectra can provide important insights into nearby sources. Cosmic ray particles may also be produced directly by the annihilation of dark matter candidates such as nutralinos and Kaluza-Klein particles. Details of the spectra of the resulting particles would therefore provide important constraints on the nature of the dark matter.

Program News

7 Aug 2014
IPSIG White Paper now available »  [PDF]
1 Aug 2014
PCOS Newletter for August 2014 now available »  Details
1 Jul 2014
NASA: Call for U.S. Scientists to serve on the ATHENA Science Study Team »  Details

Project News

Chandra News
14 Aug 2014
NASA's Chandra Observatory Searches for Trigger of Nearby Supernova » Details
Fermi News
31 Jul 2014
NASA's Fermi Space Telescope Reveals New Source of Gamma Rays » Details
Planck News
23 Oct 2013
Last Command Sent to ESA's Planck Space Telescope
» Details
XMM-Newton News
11 Jul 2014
Bizarre Nearby Blast Mimics Universe's Most Ancient Stars » Details

Related News

NuSTAR News
12 Aug 2014
NASA's NuSTAR Sees Rare Blurring of Black Hole Light » Details
Suzaku News
25 Nov 2013
Mach 1000 Shock Wave Lights Supernova Remnant » Details
Swift News
11 Jul 2014
Out of An Hours-long Explosion, A Stand-In For The First Stars » Details